How to Boost Brain Power and Memory
Updated: February 15, 2016
During the whole history of research on the human brain, scientists believed that the brain stopped making new neural connections when the body stopped developing. This means that since the age of the early 20s human memory begins to get irreversibly worse. And doctors knew that neurons, just like any other part of the body, weaken as people age. Loss of brain function due to neural breakdown related to aging was assumed to be normal and unavoidable.
However, in the past few years, it has become clear that human brain can make new neurons starting in your 20s and continuing well into old age. So you can literally rewire the brain with new parts as the older parts wear out. How?
There are lots of things you can do right now to preserve, protect and enhance your gray matter.
A healthy body really does mean a healthy mind. In the last decade it became clear that regular exercise beneficially affects brain function. Exercise boosts brain power by stimulating formation of new brain cells (neurons), the process known as neurogenesis2. Also, exercise strengthens connections between brain cells. Researchers have found the areas of the brain that are stimulated through exercise are associated with memory and learning1.
Physical exercise may even help prevent Alzheimer's disease. Several studies7 have confirmed that regular physical activity reduces the risk of cognitive decline and dementia in old age.
2Lifelong learning - your brain is a learning machine
For most of us, after we graduate from high school or college, our pursuit of new knowledge bottoms out over time. We may be masters at what we do, but we aren't learning new things. There is clear evidence8 that education and learning produce favourable changes in the brain. Researchers believe that intellectual activity play a neuroprotective role against dementia. Some studies suggest that having a low level of formal education and poor linguistic skills is a risk factor for cognitive decline in later life.
But if you continue to learn and challenge yourself, your brain continues to grow, literally. Recent research9 has demonstrated that learning over time enhances memory and the survival of new brain cells. An active brain produces new connections between nerve cells that allow cells to communicate with one another. This helps your brain store and retrieve information more easily, no matter what your age.
How can you challenge yourself? Scientists agree that anything that is new and expands your knowledge will be effective:
- Learning to play a musical instrument
- Switching careers or starting a new one
- Starting a new hobby, such as crafts, painting, biking or bird-watching
- Learning a foreign language. According to the latest study speaking more than one language may slow the aging process in the mind.
- Staying informed about what's going on in the world
- Learning to cook new dish
If you let your brain be idle, it's not going to be in the best health.
Researchers found that a woman's memory can be impaired for at least a year after giving birth, although the effects are minor
Stimulate your brain. Make sure you're actively problem-solving and having to use your memory. Just as physical activity keeps your body strong, mental activity keeps your mind sharp and agile. The more we think, the better our brains function - regardless of age. Without something to keep us mentally charged, our brains, like unused muscles, can atrophy, leading to a decline in cognitive abilities.
The study6, conducted by researchers at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine in New York, found that mentally active seniors reduced their risk of dementia by as much as 75 percent, compared to those who do not stimulate their minds. Researchers from the Princeton University10 found that simple cognitive stimulation such as Bingo can be of great value to the daily management of Alzheimer's patients.
Some good ways to stimulate your mind:
- Going to museums
- Reading books, newspapers, or magazines
- Play 'thinking' games like cards, checkers, chess, crosswords, sudoku puzzles
- Scrabble or doing crossword puzzles
- Playing musical instruments
- Crafts such as drawing, painting, and ceramics
- Ditch the calculator once in a while and forcing yourself to do the calculation
4Social interaction - People are good medicine
"Social interaction" can be measured by how often people talk on the phone with friends, neighbors and relatives, how often they get together with them, how many people they can share their most private feelings and concerns with.
Men are one and a half times more likely than women to develop mild cognitive impairment (the transition stage before dementia).
Socializing has a protective effect on the brain because it's a form of mental exercise. Not only does interacting with people stimulate the brain, but it can also keep you sharp, because dealing with people can be pretty challenging. Strong social ties have been associated with lower blood pressure and longer life expectancies.
And having no social ties is believed to be an independent risk factor for cognitive decline in older persons.
U.S. researchers found11 that talking to another person for 10 minutes a day improves memory and test scores. They found that socializing was just as effective as more traditional kinds of mental exercise in boosting memory and intellectual performance. They also found that the higher the level of social interaction, the better the cognitive functioning. Social interaction included getting together or having phone chats with relatives, friends and neighbors.
In a study of more than 2,800 people ages 65 or older, Harvard researchers12 found that those with at least five social ties - church groups, social groups, regular visits, or phone calls with family and friends - were less likely to suffer cognitive decline than those with no social ties.
5Sleep & Nap
Sleep plays a crucial role in brain development and growth.
One of the explanations the science has come up with for the healing power of sleep is that sleep may contribute to neurogenesis, the formation of new nerve cells in the brain. New research in animals13 provides a clue about how the sleep deprivation harm the brains - reduces the number of new brain cells. Without sufficient sleep, neurons may not have time to repair all the damage, and so could malfunction during the day.
Sleep is necessary for the brain to process and consolidate knowledge and for memories to form. Neuroscientists say that during sleep the hippocampus (where memory is stored) becomes highly active and moves knowledge from short-term memory to long-term memory14.
The memories laid down by the sleeping brain are of two kinds. Declarative memory is memory for information - facts, dates, and names. Procedural memory is what allows us to do things like play a musical instrument, ride a bicycle, or add up a bill. Scientists think these two types of memory are influenced by different parts of the sleep cycle. Slow wave sleep benefits mainly the consolidation of declarative memories. In contrast, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep seems to benefit procedural memory15.
According to animal studies, when you perform a task, the brain cells fire in a certain sequence. If you then fall asleep, the same cells automatically fire in an identical sequence without being distracted or disrupted by incoming visual stimuli.
There is a consistent pattern: Learn something new during the day, consolidate what you have learned during a good night's sleep, then remember or perform the task better in the morning. However, sleep before learning is also critical in preparing the brain for next-day memory formation.
Even a nap in the middle of the day may benefit some learning, according to a recent study5. Sleep appears to help "set" the declarative memories and make them easier to recall.
The brain uses 20% of our body's oxygen and 20% of its blood.
Scientists believe people exposed to chronic stress tend to have elevated levels of cortisol - a hormone produced by the adrenal glands in response to acute and chronic stress. High cortisol levels are dangerous to the brain.
Some of the most impressive effects of the stress on brain are hippocampus atrophy, shrinkage of the hippocampus or prefrontal cortex (the area of the brain unique to humans), and even neural death in some brain regions20. The hippocampus, a vital brain region for episodic, spatial, and contextual memory, has many cortisol receptors, which makes it especially susceptible to stress.
Severe stress lasting weeks or months can impair cell communication in the brain's learning and memory region. Increased stress hormones lead to memory impairment in the elderly and learning difficulties in young adults19.
Short-term stress is also destructive. Researchers from the University of California18 have found short-term stress lasting as little as a few hours can impair brain-cell communication in areas associated with learning and memory. They found that rather than involving the widely known stress hormone cortisol, which circulates throughout the body, acute stress activated selective molecules called corticotropin releasing hormones, which disrupted the process by which the brain collects and stores memories.
Stress is a constant in our lives and cannot be avoided. So, stress management is the key, not stress elimination. Several ways to help you manage stress in your daily life:
- See problems as opportunities
- Get away from the noise
- Learn relaxation techniques such as yoga and meditation
- Cut down on unnecessary responsibilities and avoid over-scheduling
- Make time for leisure activities
- Get a massage
7Laugh & Humor
Laughter is the best medicine! We've heard the expression time and again. Medical world has begun to take more serious notice of the healing power of humor and the positive emotions associated with it. By having fun and laughing, your stress levels decrease significantly. Humor stimulates the parts of our brain that use the "feel good" chemical messenger dopamine. Also, researchers found that humor improves memory26.
It might be the last thing on your morning to-do list, or it might not be on your list at all. However, many studies have shown that having breakfast improves the ability of concentration, reaction time, learning ability, mood and memory, whereas skipping breakfast reduces people's performance at school and at work27.
A recent study done at Cardiff University in Wales found that subjects who ate a high-fiber cereal in the morning showed a 10 percent reduction in fatigue, lower incidence of depression, and better cognitive skills. Fiber helps slow down the absorption of food in the stomach, so you have more energy for a longer period of time.
9Omega-3 fatty acids
High intake of omega-6 rich oils (such as sunflower or grape seed oil) decreases the risk of dementia and Alzheimer disease4.
Omega-3 fatty acids are essential for brain health - they provide the physical building blocks necessary for the development and maintenance of the structural and functional integrity of the brain. In fact, one of the omega-3 fatty acids, commonly known as DHA (docosahexaenoic acid), makes up a large portion of the gray matter in the brain and is vital for brain ells function. Adding more DHA to your brain directly influences cell-to-cell communication, affects nerve conduction and neurotransmitter release, and other things that allow brain cells to send messages to each other21. DHA is essential to normal brain function, and a diet rich in DHA improves learning, while a lack of DHA worsens learning ability.
French researchers4 found that people who regularly consume omega-3 rich oils, such as canola, flaxseed, and walnut oil, are 60% less likely to develop dementia than those who do not regularly consume such oils. Regular consumption of fruits and vegetables lowers dementia risk by 30%. People who eat fish at least once a week are 40 percent less likely to develop dementia.
Coldwater fish, such as salmon, tuna, mackerel, and herring are rich sources of omega-3 fatty acids (just be careful to eat this in moderation due to potential contamination with mercury). Dutch studies22 revealed that high fish consumption may reduce the risk of dementia and cognitive decline.
Would you believe that eating this tasty, low-glycemic superfood every day was found by the USDA at Tufts University23 to slow and even reverse age-related brain decline, as well as improve short-term memory loss and help reverse age-related loss of balance?!
Blueberries are a major source of flavonoids, in particular anthocyanins and flavanols. Although the precise mechanisms by which these plant-derived molecules affect the brain are unknown, they have been shown to cross the blood brain barrier after dietary intake. It is believed that they exert their effects on learning and memory by enhancing existing neuronal connections, improving cellular communications and stimulating neuronal regeneration.
Researchers found that eating vegetables appears to help keep the brain young and may slow the mental decline sometimes associated with growing old16. Cruciferous and green leafy vegetables including cauliflower, spinach, kale, broccoli, cabbage, brussels sprout and collards appear to be the most beneficial17. Researchers say that may be because they contain healthy amounts of vitamin E, an antioxidant that is believed to help fight chemicals produced by the body that can damage cells.
Increased blood level of homocysteine is a strong risk factor for the development of Alzheimer disease and dementia31. Three B vitamins, folic acid, B6, and B12, can help lower your homocysteine levels. Fortified cereal, other grains, and leafy green vegetables are good sources of B vitamins.
12Want to drink? Choose red wine!
People who drink to forget bad memories may actually be doing the opposite by reinforcing the neural circuits that control negative emotional memory3
While heavy drinking clearly causes serious problems for many people, drinking in moderation may be good for the brain.
Intake of up to three daily servings of wine, unlike other alcohol beverages (liquor, beer), is associated with a lower risk of dementia. This may be due to the ability of red wine polyphenols to protect brain cells against alcohol-induced damage25. There is well-documented evidence that resveratrol, a polyphenol found in red wine and red grape skin and seeds, has a significant antioxidant properties and produces neuroprotective effects24.
13Care for your heart and vessels
Many risk factors for cardiovascular disease may also contribute to cognitive decline and dementia.
High blood pressure in midlife increases the risk of cognitive decline in old age28.
A growing body of scientific research finds musical training provides students learning advantages in the classroom. Recently scientists revealed that very poor auditory and memory skills are rare among children with even a short period of musical training35.
According to the latest 2014 Kraus's study32, learning to play a musical instrument or to sing can help disadvantaged children strengthen their reading and language skills. Musical training appears to enhance the way children's nervous systems process sounds in a busy environment, e.g. classroom.
Also, lifelong musical training confers benefits in at least 2 important functions known to decline with age -- memory and the ability to hear speech in noise34.
15Singing for foreign language learning
A new experimental study33 provides evidence that a listen-and-repeat singing method can facilitate foreign language learning. Singing in a foreign language can significantly improve learning how to speak it.
Created by Lawrence C. Katz, Ph.D., a professor of neurobiology at Duke University Medical Center, neurobics is a unique system of brain exercises sing your five physical senses and your emotional sense in unexpected ways that encourage you to shake up your everyday routines. Studies have shown that even small changes in daily patterns induce brain stimulation.
Neurobics can be done anywhere, anytime, in offbeat, fun and easy ways. These exercises can activate underused nerve pathways and connections, helping you achieve a fit and flexible mind:
- Drive to work a different route
- Get dressed with your eyes closed
- Brush your teeth with the other hand
- Unlock the door with your eyes closed
- Use your opposite hand to dial the phone or operate the TV remote
- Listen to music and smell flowers at the same time
- Shop at new grocery store
Research has suggested that using your left hand if you're right handed or your right if you're left handed more often, can help stimulate parts of the brain that you don't normally use.
17Repeated testing is superior to repeated studying
There is strong evidence that memory is enhanced by repeated retrieval of information36.
- 1. Wu CW, Chen YC, Yu L, Chen HI, Jen CJ, Huang AM, Tsai HJ, Chang YT, Kuo YM. Treadmill exercise counteracts the suppressive effects of peripheral lipopolysaccharide on hippocampal neurogenesis and learning and memory. J Neurochem. 2007 Dec;103(6):2471-81. PubMed
- 2. van Praag H. Neurogenesis and Exercise: Past and Future Directions. Neuromolecular Med. 2008 Feb 20.
- 3. Bruce KR, Pihl RO. Enhanced consolidation of emotionally charged memory by alcohol. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol. 1997 Aug;5(3):242-50. PubMed
- 4. Barberger-Gateau P, Raffaitin C, Letenneur L, Berr C, Tzourio C, Dartigues JF, Alpe'rovitch A. Dietary patterns and risk of dementia. Neurology. 2007 Nov 13;69(20):1921-30. PubMed
- 5. Tucker MA, Fishbein W. Enhancement of declarative memory performance following a daytime nap is contingent on strength of initial task acquisition. Sleep. 2008 Feb 1;31(2):197-203.
- 6. Verghese J, Lipton RB, Katz MJ, Hall CB, Derby CA, Kuslansky G, Ambrose AF, Sliwinski M, Buschke H. Leisure activities and the risk of dementia in the elderly. N Engl J Med. 2003 Jun 19;348(25):2508-16. PubMed
- 7. Andel R, Crowe M, Pedersen NL, Fratiglioni L, Johansson B, Gatz M. Physical exercise at midlife and risk of dementia three decades later. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2008 Jan;63(1):62-6. PubMed
- 8. Hatch SL, Feinstein L, Link BG, Wadsworth ME, Richards M. Adult education and midlife cognitive ability. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2007 Nov;62(6):S404-14. PubMed
- 9. Sisti HM, Glass AL, Shors TJ. Learning over time enhances memory and the survival of new neurons. Learn Mem. 2007 May 10;14(5):368-75.
- 10. Sobel BP. Bingo vs. physical intervention in stimulating short-term cognition in Alzheimer's disease patients. Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen. 2001 Mar-Apr;16(2):115-20 PubMed
- 11. Ybarra O, Burnstein E, Winkielman P, Keller MC, Manis M, Chan E, Rodriguez J. Social interaction promotes general cognitive functioning. Pers Soc Psychol Bull. 2008 Feb;34(2):248-59.
- 12. Bassuk SS, Glass TA, Berkman LF. Social disengagement and incident cognitive decline in community-dwelling elderly persons. Ann Intern Med. 1999 Aug 3;131(3):165-73
- 13. Guzman-Marin R, Suntsova N, Bashir T, Nienhuis R, Szymusiak R, McGinty D. Rapid eye movement sleep deprivation contributes to reduction of neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of the adult rat. Sleep. 2008 Feb 1;31(2):167-75.
- 14. Gais S, Born J. Declarative memory consolidation: mechanisms acting during human sleep. Learn Mem. 2004 Nov-Dec;11(6):679-85.
- 15. Wagner U, Born J. Memory consolidation during sleep: Interactive effects of sleep stages and HPA regulation. Stress. 2007 Jul 20;:1
- 16. Morris MC, Evans DA, Tangney CC, Bienias JL, Wilson RS. Associations of vegetable and fruit consumption with age-related cognitive change. Neurology. 2006 Oct 24;67(8):1370-6.
- 17. Kang JH, Ascherio A, Grodstein F. Fruit and vegetable consumption and cognitive decline in aging women. Ann Neurol. 2005 May;57(5):713-20. PubMed
- 18. Chen Y, Dube' CM, Rice CJ, Baram TZ. Rapid loss f dendritic spines after stress involves derangement of spine dynamics by corticotropin-releasing hormone. J Neurosci. 2008 Mar 12;28(11):2903-11.
- 19. Lupien SJ, Fiocco A, Wan N, Maheu F, Lord C, Schramek T, Tu MT. Stress hormones and human memory function across the lifespan. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2005 Apr;30(3):225-42. PubMed
- 20. Madrigal JL, Garci'a-Bueno B, Caso JR, Pe'rez-Nievas BG, Leza JC. Stress-induced oxidative changes in brain. CNS Neurol Disord. 2006 Oct;5(5):561-8.
- 21. Kurlak, L.O., Stephenson, T.J Plausible explanations for effects of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) on neonates. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 1999 March; 80(2).
- 22. Kalmijn S, van Boxtel MP, Ocke' M, Verschuren WM, Kromhout D, Launer LJ. Dietary intake of fatty acids and fish in relation to cognitive performance at middle age. Neurology. 2004 Jan 27;62(2):275-80. PubMed
- 23. Galli RL, Bielinski DF, Szprengiel A, Shukitt-Hale B, Joseph JA. Blueberry supplemented diet reverses age-related decline in hippocampal HSP70 neuroprotection. Neurobiol Aging. 2006 Feb;27(2):344-50. PubMed
- 24. Bastianetto S, Zheng WH, Quirion R. Neuroprotective abilities of resveratrol and other red wine constituents against nitric oxide-related toxicity in cultured hippocampal neurons. Br J Pharmacol. 2000 Oct;131(4):711-20.
- 25. Assunc,ao M, Santos-Marques MJ, de Freitas V, Carvalho F, Andrade JP, Lukoyanov NV, Paula-Barbosa MM Red wine antioxidants protect hippocampal neurons against ethanol-induced damage. Neuroscience. 2007 Jun 8;146(4):1581-92.
- 26. Schmidt SR. Effects of humor on sentence memory. J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn. 1994 Jul;20(4):953-67.
- 27. Rampersaud GC, Pereira MA, Girard BL, Adams J, Metzl JD. Breakfast habits, nutritional status, body weight, and academic performance in children and adolescents. J Am Diet Assoc. 2005 May;105(5):743-60; PubMed
- 28. Takechi H. Hypertension as a risk factor of dementia and cognitive decline in the elderly. Nippon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi. 2007 Jul;44(4):433-6.
- 29. Okereke OI, Kang JH, Cook NR, Gaziano JM, Manson JE, Buring JE, Grodstein F. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Cognitive Decline. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2008 Apr 1 PubMed
- 30. Anstey KJ, Lipnicki DM, Low LF. Cholesterol as a risk factor for dementia and cognitive decline. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2008 May;16(5):343-54. PubMed
- 31. Ravaglia G, Forti P, Maioli F, Martelli M, Servadei L, Brunetti N, Porcellini E, Licastro F. Homocysteine and folate as risk factors for dementia and Alzheimer disease. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Sep;82(3):636-43.
- 32. Tierney A, Kraus N. Music training for the development of reading skills. Prog Brain Res. 2013;207:209-41.
- 33. Ludke KM, Ferreira F, Overy K. Singing can facilitate foreign language learning. Mem Cognit. 2014 Jan;42(1):41-52. PubMed
- 34. Parbery-Clark A, Strait DL, Anderson S, Hittner E, Kraus N. Musical experience and the aging auditory system: implications for cognitive abilities and hearing speech in noise. PLoS One. 2011 May 11;6(5):e18082.
- 35. Banai K, Ahissar M. Musical experience, auditory perception and reading-related skills in children. PLoS One. 2013 Sep 24;8(9):e75876. PubMed
- 36. Pastötter B, Schicker S, Niedernhuber J, Bäuml KH. Retrieval during learning facilitates subsequent memory encoding. J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn. 2011 Mar;37(2):287-97. PubMed
Last updated: February 18, 2016