Penicillin in Brief
- Active ingredient: Penicillin VK (Penicillin V Potassium,
- Brand names: Beepen VK, Betapen-VK, V-Cillin
K, Pen-Vee K, Robicillin VK, Veetids
- Drug class: Natural penicillin antibiotic
- FDA Approved: January 13, 1958
- Pregnancy Category: B
- Originally discovered: London, UK
Penicillin V potassium (Phenoxymethylpenicillin) is the potassium salt
of penicillin V. This chemically improved form combines acid stability
with immediate solubility and rapid absorption.
Penicillin V potassium exerts high in vitro activity against staphylococci
(except penicillinase-producing strains), streptococci (groups A, C,
G, H, L and M), and pneumococci.
The discovery of penicillin has often been described as a miracle drug,
and that is exactly what it was.
Do you know who invented penicillin? Originally it was noticed by a French medical student, Ernest Duchesne, in
1896. Penicillin was re-discovered by bacteriologist Alexander Fleming
working at St. Mary's Hospital in London in 1928 10. He observed that a
plate culture of Staphylococcus had been contaminated by a blue-green
mold and that colonies of bacteria adjacent to the mold were being dissolved.
Curious, Alexander Fleming grew the mold in a pure culture and found
that it produced a substance that killed a number of disease-causing
bacteria. Naming the substance penicillin, Dr. Fleming in 1929 published
the results of his investigations, noting that his discovery might have
therapeutic value if it could be produced in quantity.
What is penicillin used for
FDA approved uses:
- Streptococcal infections (without bacteremia) - mild to moderate
infections of the upper respiratory tract, scarlet fever, and mild
- Pneumococcal infections - mild to moderately severe infections of
the respiratory tract.
- Staphylococcal infections (penicillin G-sensitive) - mild infections
of the skin and soft tissues.
- Fusospirochetosis (Vincent's gingivitis and pharyngitis) - mild
to moderately severe infections of the oropharynx usually respond
to therapy with oral penicillin.
- Prevention of recurrence following rheumatic fever and/or chorea:
Prophylaxis with oral penicillin on a continuing basis has proven
effective in preventing recurrence of these conditions.
Only mild to moderate infections are treated with oral penicillin.
Patients with more severe infections can be given penicillin by injection.
Off-label & Investigational uses:
- Prophylactic treatment of sickle cell anemia in children4
- Anaerobic infections5-6
- Lyme disease (erythema migrans)7
Lyme disease is caused when an Ixodes tick passes on the germ known
as "Borrelia burgdorferi," while sucking blood from its victim. Most
people who get Lyme disease will show a rounded red rash at the place
the tick bit them within a month. Some never develop a rash, while
others develop multiple spots. The rash is called erythema migrans
(formerly erythema chronicum migrans).
Penicillin VK "pros" and "cons"
- May be taken with meals - resistant to inactivation by gastric
- Bactericidal against sensitive bacteria.
- Relatively non-toxic
- Excellent tissue penetration
- Relatively inexpensive in comparison with other antibiotics.
- Pregnancy category B. Penicillin is considered safe during
- Less likely to induce antimicrobial resistance than broad spectrum
- Frequent dosage regimen. Because of its short half-life, penicillin
must be administered at short intervals, usually every 6 hours.
- Penicillin allergy (hypersensitivity) - about 10% of population
has allergy. All degrees of hypersensitivity, including fatal anaphylaxis,
have been reported with penicillin.
- Unpalatable suspension. Children don't like the taste of penicillin2.
- Narrow antibacterial spectrum.
Mode of action
Penicillin exerts a bactericidal action and acts during the period
of bacterial multiplication, inhibiting the biosynthesis of the mucopeptide
of the cell wall.
Time to clear out of the system
Penicillin VK half-life is 0.5 to 1 hr. So it takes about 5 hr to clear
out of the system.
Penicillin VK for strep throat
Streptococcal sore throat is an infection with the group A beta-haemolytic
streptococcus (Streptococcus pyogenes). Although this condition will usually
resolve without treatment, the infection may be complicated by otitis
media, and rarely by peritonsillar abscess (quinsy), or rheumatic fever.
Penicillin is normally the antibiotic of choice for streptococcal pharyngitis.
Group A streptococci remain fully sensitive to penicillin.
A twice daily regimen is probably as effective as four times daily
and may improve compliance. Unfortunately, many children dislike the
taste of penicillin. In one study2
it was the least palatable of 14 commonly prescribed antibiotic suspensions.
Penicillin V dosage:
- Children: 250 mg two or three times daily for 10 days
- Adults: 500 mg two or three times daily for 10 days
In a meta-analysis1 of 19
studies, involving 2450 patients, the clinical failure rate
was 11% after 10 days' treatment with penicillin and 5% with various
cephalosporins, with a similar rate and severity of side effects. However,
cephalosporins are more expensive than penicillin, which remains effective for the great majority of patients.
- 1. Pichichero ME, Margolis PA. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1991; 10: 275–81.
- 2. Ruff ME, Schotik DA, Bass JW, Vincent JM.
Taste of antimicrobial drug suspensions. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1991; 10: 30–33.
- 3. Park MA, Matesic D, Markus PJ, Li JT. Female
sex as a risk factor for penicillin allergy. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol.
2007 Jul;99(1):54-8. PubMed
- 4. Fonseca PB, Braga JA, Machado AM, Brandileone
MC, Farhat CK. Nasopharyngeal colonization by Streptococcus pneumoniae
in children with sickle cell disease receiving prophylactic penicillin.
J Pediatr (Rio J). 2005 Mar-Apr;81(2):149-54. PubMed
- 5. Busch DF, Kureshi LA, Sutter VL, Finegold
SM. Susceptibility of respiratory tract anaerobes to orally administered
penicillins and cephalosporins. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1976
- 6. Head TW, Bentley KC, Millar EP, deVries JA. Penicillin
V in eliminating anaerobes from postextraction bacteremias. Oral Surg
Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1984 Aug;58(2):152-5. PubMed
- 7. Bennet L, Danell S, Berglund J Clinical outcome
of erythema migrans after treatment with phenoxymethyl penicillin.
Scand J Infect Dis. 2003;35(2):129-31. PubMed
- 8. Pujadas R, Escriva E, Jane J, Galera MC, Fava
P, Garau J, Mirelis B. Efficacy of orally administered penicillin
V for prophylaxis of experimentally induced streptococcal endocarditis.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1987 Oct;31(10):1474-7.
- 9. Josefsson K, Magni L, Nord CE. High dose phenoxymethylpenicillin
for preventing endocarditis. Scand J Infect Dis. 1982;14(2):131-3.
- 10. Hare R. New light on the history of penicillin. Med History 1982 Jan;26(1):1-24. PubMed
Published: June 16, 2008
Last updated: April 08, 2012